Formidable Forms is a mature project for creating and managing website forms. Formidable forms can be used in a standard way for submitting website forms that usually involve sending information via an email. The classic example is a contact form. However, Formidable Forms has also evolved to have capabilities where form data can be used to create WordPress posts or pages. The management capabilities of Formidable Forms also allow it be treated similarly to a custom post type. With the appropriate plugins, Formidable Forms can be created and then edited, and have their data displayed in tables, grids, and graphs and exported in CSV or Excel files. The maturity of this project along with its integration with other capable plugins like wpDataTables makes this an excellent foundation on which to build data collection needs for a research project.
To edit data in a form in the front end once it has been entered, then you can follow the directions on this knowledgebase article.